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To investigate the epidemiological features of the pathogens responsible for prostatitis in the Changshu area, and offer some evidence for the clinical treatment of prostatitis.
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The role of macrolides in the management of CF lung disease remains unclear and there are many unanswered questions. Two small randomised controlled trials have suggested short-term improvement in respiratory function with azithromycin. Until the results of further studies are available the widespread use of azithromycin in CF cannot be advocated and should be restricted to well-designed randomised controlled trials.
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MEDLINE (1966-1997), EMBASE (1974-1997), Current Contents, and Science Citation Index searches were conducted to identify randomized controlled trials of the treatment of acute otitis media in children with antibiotics of different durations.
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Mycoplasma genitalium is an important cause of STI in men and women. Worldwide evidence suggests a reduction in efficacy of azithromycin treatment due to the prevalence of macrolide resistant M. genitalium. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of macrolide resistance in patients with a positive test for M. genitalium within our setting.
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Azithromycin, a recently introduced antibiotic, offers the potential advantages of short-course administration and lower toxicity compared to other macrolides. Approved for the treatment of mild pneumonia, this drug was investigated in a study of patients hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia. In an open-labelled randomized study, oral azithromycin was compared with intravenous benzylpenicillin in patients suspected to have pneumococcal pneumonia. Azithromycin was also compared with erythromycin, both administered orally, in all other patients. Three hundred thirty-four patients with community-acquired pneumonia were hospitalized, 108 of whom were randomized; 104 could be evaluated. A need for intravenous therapy was the most common reason for exclusion. In the pneumococcal group, 35 patients received azithromycin and 29 benzylpenicillin. The clinical and radiological success rate achieved with azithromycin (83%) was considerably higher than that achieved with benzylpenicillin (66%), though the difference was not significant. In the non-pneumococcal group, 19 patients received azithromycin and 21 erythromycin; no differences in the success rate were found (79% and 76%, respectively). Eight patients on azithromycin had a blood culture positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae; in three of these patients therapy was changed. None of the five patients with pneumococcal bacteraemia who received benzylpenicillin required a change in therapy. It is concluded that oral azithromycin, administered as short-course therapy, is an appropriate antibiotic for treating patients with community-acquired pneumonia. However, it is not yet certain that azithromycin is a good choice for patients with pneumococcal bacteraemia.
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The recommendations in this report were developed to broaden the spectrum of antimicrobial agents that are available for treatment and postexposure prophylaxis of pertussis. They include updated information on macrolide agents other than erythromycin (azithromycin and clarithromycin) and their dosing schedule by age group.
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Oral supplementation with omega 3 (ω-3) and/or 6 (ω-6) fatty acids (FAs) has been reported to alleviate the signs and symptoms of dry eye disease and to improve the expressibility and quality of meibum, in patients with meibomian gland dysfunction. We tested our hypothesis that these FA effects may reflect a direct FA action on human meibomian gland epithelial cells.
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Prevalence of penicillin non-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae in the four cities was 41%, with Guangzhou (60.8%) ranking first, followed by Xi'an (45%), Shanghai (37%) and Beijing (25.9%). The majority of penicillin non-susceptibility isolates (23.9% - 53.8%) had a low level of resistance (MIC 0.64 - 1.5 microg/ml). The most sensitive antimicrobials in terms of percentage of susceptible organisms were amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (99.4%), followed by ceftriaxone (92.1%); cefurxime and cefaclor were slightly more sensitive than penicillin with susceptibility of 74.8% and 77.9%. Erythromycin, tetracycline and TMP-SMZ were highly resistant (83.6%, 82.1% and 76.2% respectively). Among erythromycin resistant isolates, 100% were resistant to azithromycin, 98.6% to clarithromycin, 97.2% to roxithromycin and spiramycin, and 96.6% to clindamycin. 97.2% (141/145) were typical of the macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramons B (MLSB) resistance phenotype, and 2.8% (4/145) were M phenotype. The group of PRSP was with significantly higher rates of non-susceptibility for ceftriaxone (18.4%), cefurxime (58.6%), cefaclor (53.4%), compared with the group of PEN-S (0.5%, 1.8% and 0.2%, respectively) and the rate of multi-drug resistance in the isolates of PRSP group (92.9%) was significantly higher than that of PEN-S group (59.2%).