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The results of the pharmacokinetic analysis revealed little change in mean maximum concentration (Cmax) and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) values for desloratadine with concomitant administration of azithromycin: Cmax ratio, 115% (90% CI, 92-144); AUC, ratio 105% (90% CI, 82-134). The corresponding ratios for 3-hydroxydesloratadine were 115% (90% CI, 98-136) and 104% (90% CI, 88-122), respectively. A substantial increase was observed in mean Cmax and AUC values for fexofenadine when administered with azithromycin: Cmax, ratio, 169% (90% CI, 120-237); AUC ratio, 167% (90% CI, 122-229). Compared with the group receiving desloratadine and azithromycin, subjects receiving fexofenadine and azithromycin also displayed greater variability in pharmacokinetic parameters for the antihistamine. Mean Cmax and AUC values of azithromycin were slightly higher when administered with desloratadine (Cmax ratio, 131% [90% CI, 92-187]; AUC ratio, 112% [90% CI, 83-153]) but were lower when given in combination with fexofenadine (Cmax ratio, 87% [90% CI, 61-124]; AUC ratio, 88% [90% CI, 65-1201). The most common adverse event for all regimens was headache, reported in 20 (22%) subjects. All combinations of desloratadine or fexofenadine with and without azithromycin were well tolerated, and no statistically significant changes in PR, QT, or QT, interval, QRS complex, or ventricular rate were observed.
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The pathogenesis of extrapulmonary Mycoplasma pneumoniae-associated neurologic disease is unclear. We present a case of acute meningoencephalitis in a 15-year-old girl with central nervous system invasion of the bacterium but without intrathecal antibody synthesis. Our observations suggest that in this setting M. pneumoniae infection can be self-limiting and mild despite invasion of the central nervous system.
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A regression model, predicting log weight as a function of log height, was the best fit and explained 94% of the variance. In children less than 1 year of age or 60 cm in height, dose determined by weight was preferred. Dosage by height resulted in more than 97% of children receiving doses within the tolerance limits. Children aged 1 to 2 years were the group most likely to be over- or undermedicated, but this occurred in only 6% of this age group.
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A 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in 2000.
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Ocular Tracking Resistance in U.S. Today (TRUST) annually evaluates in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae to ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, penicillin, azithromycin, tobramycin, trimethoprim, and polymyxin B in national samples of ocular isolates.
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After the introduction of the seven valent-pneumococcal conjugated vaccine into our National Immunization Program, it is important to establish and track local serotype distribution in order to evaluate its impact specially because serotype replacement phenomena has been described.To describe the clinical, epidemiological and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Costa Rican children with otitis media caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3.
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Staphylococcus aureus causes a broad range of life-threatening diseases in humans. This bacterium produces a large number of extracellular virulence factors that are closely associated with specific diseases which are controlled by quorum sensing. In this study, we show that azithromycin was active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains with MICs ranged from 32 to 64 μg/mL. Azithromycin at subinhibitory concentration, markedly reduced the production of α-hemolysin at (1/16MIC, 1/8MIC) and biofilm formation at (1/16MIC, 1/8MIC), respectively. The results indicated that sub-inhibitory concentrations of azithromycin decreased the production of α-hemolysin and biofilm formation in MRSA in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, azithromycin may be useful in the treatment of α-hemolysin producing and biofilm formation MRSA infections.
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Rotavirus, norovirus, non-typhoidal Salmonella and Campylobacter are significantly associated with diarrhea in Chinese children. Fecal leukocytes >5/HPF can predict bacterial diarrhea. Target prevention and appropriate treatment of diarrhea should consider the potential pathogen and resistance pattern.
Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) plus azithromycin (AZ) (SPAZ) has the potential for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp), but its use could increase circulation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria associated with severe pediatric infections. We evaluated the effect of monthly SPAZ-IPTp compared to a single course of SP plus chloroquine (SPCQ) on maternal nasopharyngeal carriage and antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus at delivery among 854 women participating in a randomized controlled trial in Papua New Guinea. Serotyping was performed, and antibiotic susceptibility was evaluated by disk diffusion and Etest. Potential risk factors for carriage were examined. Nasopharyngeal carriage at delivery of S. pneumoniae (SPAZ, 7.2% [30/418], versus SPCQ, 19.3% [84/436]; P<0.001) and H. influenzae (2.9% [12/418] versus 6.0% [26/436], P=0.028), but not S. aureus, was significantly reduced among women who had received SPAZ-IPTp. The number of macrolide-resistant pneumococcal isolates was small but increased in the SPAZ group (13.3% [4/30], versus SPCQ, 2.2% [2/91]; P=0.033). The proportions of isolates with serotypes covered by the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine were similar (SPAZ, 10.3% [3/29], versus SPCQ, 17.6% [16/91]; P=0.352). Although macrolide-resistant isolates were rare, they were more commonly detected in women who had received SPAZ-IPTp, despite the significant reduction of maternal carriage of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae observed in this group. Future studies on SPAZ-IPTp should evaluate carriage and persistence of macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae and other pathogenic bacteria in both mothers and infants and assess the clinical significance of their circulation.
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The azithromycin immediate-release formulation (AZ-IR) provides effective treatment for group A beta-haemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis in adults. Single-dose therapy with a novel azithromycin extended-release (AZ-ER) formulation could reduce treatment failure and eliminate non-compliance contributing to antimicrobial resistance. A randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, multicentre trial was conducted comparing AZ-ER (single oral 2-g dose) with AZ-IR (3 days, 500 mg once daily) for the treatment of group A beta-haemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis/tonsillitis in adults and adolescents (n = 598). The primary endpoint was bacteriological eradication at test -of-cure (TOC; day 24-28) in the bacteriological per-protocol population (n = 420). Bacteriological eradication was achieved in 85.4% (175/205) and 81.4% (175/215) of subjects in the AZ-ER and AZ-IR groups, respectively (95% CI -3.1-11.1). Clinical cure at TOC occurred in 99.0% of subjects in the AZ-ER group and in 96.7% in the AZ-IR group. At long-term follow-up, bacteriological recurrence was observed in 5.5% (9/163) and 7.7% (12/156), respectively. Both treatments were well tolerated; and most adverse events (AEs) were mild to moderate in intensity. The most frequent treatment-related AE was diarrhoea, or loose stools, in 11% of both treatment groups. AZ-ER-treated and AZ-IR-treated subjects had AE burdens (AE days/patient-year) of 7.6 days and 9.2 days, respectively. A similar trend in favour of AZ-ER was noted for treatment-related diarrhoea burden (1.9 days vs. 2.5 days). A single 2-g dose of AZ-ER is as effective and well tolerated as 3 days of AZ-IR (500 mg once daily) for treating group A beta-haemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis/tonsillitis in adults and adolescents.