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Acute pharyngitis in adults is one of the most common infectious diseases seen in general practitioners' consultations. Viral aetiology is the most common. Among bacterial causes, the main agent is Streptococcus pyogenes or group A β-haemolytic streptococcus (GABHS), which causes 5%-30% of the episodes. In the diagnostic process, clinical assessment scales can help clinicians to better predict suspected bacterial aetiology by selecting patients who should undergo a rapid antigen detection test. If these techniques are not performed, an overdiagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis often occurs, resulting in unnecessary prescriptions of antibiotics, most of which are broad spectrum. Consequently, management algorithms that include the use of predictive clinical rules and rapid tests have been set up. The aim of the treatment is speeding up symptom resolution, reducing the contagious time span and preventing local suppurative and non-suppurative complications. Penicillin and amoxicillin are the antibiotics of choice for the treatment of pharyngitis. The association of amoxicillin and clavulanate is not indicated as the initial treatment of acute infection. Neither are macrolides indicated as first-line therapy; they should be reserved for patients allergic to penicillin. The appropriate diagnosis of bacterial pharyngitis and proper use of antibiotics based on the scientific evidence available are crucial. Using management algorithms can be helpful in identifying and screening the cases that do not require antibiotic therapy.
We conclude that laboratories should encourage accurate bacteriologic record keeping of urinary isolates and their antibiograms to serve as guidance in empirical treatment in UTI. Also, urine microscopy may reduce the number of specimens sent for culture which are not cost-effective.
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Outcome was determined for 3196 (71%) eligible children. Overall, a greater proportion of children whose mothers had been prescribed erythromycin, with or without co-amoxiclav, had any functional impairment than did those whose mothers had received no erythromycin (658 [42.3%] of 1554 children vs 574 [38.3%] of 1498; odds ratio 1.18, 95% CI 1.02-1.37). Co-amoxiclav (with or without erythromycin) had no effect on the proportion of children with any functional impairment, compared with receipt of no co-amoxiclav (624 [40.7%] of 1523 vs 608 [40.0%] of 1520; 1.03, 0.89-1.19). No effects were seen with either antibiotic on the number of deaths, other medical conditions, behavioural patterns, or educational attainment. However, more children whose mothers had received erythromycin or co-amoxiclav developed cerebral palsy than did those born to mothers who received no erythromycin or no co-amoxiclav, respectively (erythromycin: 53 [3.3%] of 1611 vs 27 [1.7%] of 1562, 1.93, 1.21-3.09; co-amoxiclav: 50 [3.2%] of 1587 vs 30 [1.9%] of 1586, 1.69, 1.07-2.67). The number needed to harm with erythromycin was 64 (95% CI 37-209) and with co-amoxiclav 79 (42-591).
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Patients were randomly treated with 30-day courses of either placebo (PLAC) or AMOX/CLAV (40 mg/kg in 3 divided doses daily).
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In the amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (Group A) and cefazolin (Group B) groups, overall 346 and 352 patients, respectively, were evaluable for prophylactic efficacy at hospital discharge. Infectious complications were infrequent in both arms. Febrile morbidity occurred in 21 (6.1%) and 26 (7.4%) patients, respectively, in the amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cefazolin groups. Wound infection and urinary tract infection were also higher, but not significantly in the cefazolin group (0.5% vs. 1.1% and 2.0% vs. 2.5%, respectively). There was one respiratory tract infection (0.2%) in Group B, and no septic death in either groups.
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Although a possible microbial etiology was identified in 43% of the evaluable patients, clinical findings and results of blood cultures, chest radiographs and white blood cell and differential counts did not distinguish patients with a defined etiology from those without a known cause for pneumonia. There were no differences in the clinical responses of patients to the antimicrobial regimens studied.
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Treatment with oral antibiotics is as effective as parenteral then oral treatment in the management of the first episode of clinical pyelonephritis in children.
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The study was a prospective longitudinal audit.
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Overall, bacteriologic success (eradication or clinical evidence of eradication) at the follow-up visit (days 17-28) was achieved in 87.8% (722/822) of patients with 1 or more pathogen isolated at screening, in 93.2% (246/264) of patients with S pneumoniae, in 96.7% (29/30) of those with penicillin-resistant S pneumoniae (penicillin minimum inhibitory concentrations >or=2 microg/mL), and in 88.7% (110/124) of patients with beta-lactamase-positive pathogens. Bacteriologic success was achieved against 6 of 7 S pneumoniae isolates with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid minimum inhibitory concentrations of 4/2 microg/mL or higher.
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A self-administered questionnaire completed by lead consultants on delivery suite of maternity units.