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From a pool of 1450 children (aged 1-10 years) with SOM, defined by tympanometry as having type B or C2 tympanograms, 429 with SOM of at least 3 months' duration were included in the trial. After exclusion of 69 patients, the remaining 360 were evenly distributed among 4 treatment groups: penicillin V (Primcillin) for 14 and 28 days, and amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in combination (Spektramox) for 14 and 28 days. Criteria for improvement was a change in tympanometric findings to type C1 or type A.
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This randomized, open label study compared the efficacy and safety of a 5-day course of once daily azithromycin to those of a 10-day course of three times daily amoxicillin/ clavulanate.
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There were no significant differences between the demographic characteristics of PP patients in either treatment group. At TOC, MXF and PIP/TAZ-AMC had similar efficacy in both the PP and intent-to-treat (ITT) populations: MXF: 76.4 % versus PIP/TAZ-AMC: 78.1 %; 95 % confidence interval (CI) -14.5 %, 9.0 % in the PP population; MXF: 69.9 % versus PIP/TAZ-AMC: 69.1 %; 95 % CI -12.4 %, 12.1 % in the ITT population. The overall bacteriological success rates were similar in both treatment groups (MXF: 71.7 % versus PIP/TAZ-AMC: 71.8 %; 95 % CI -16.9 %, 10.7 %). A similar proportion of patients (ITT population) experienced any adverse events in both treatment groups (MXF: 30.9 % versus PIP/TAZ-AMC: 31.8 %, respectively). Death occurred in three MXF-treated patients and one PIP/TAZ-AMC-treated patient; these were unrelated to the study drugs.
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We included only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing antibiotic treatment with no antibiotic treatment or with another antibiotic regimen for the treatment of MRSA-infected non surgical wounds. We included all relevant RCTs in the analysis, irrespective of language, publication status, publication year, or sample size.
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The aim of the study was to evaluate the in vitro/ex vivo bactericidal activity of a new coamoxiclav single-dose sachet formulation (1 g amoxicillin + 0.125 g clavulanic acid) against a beta-lactamase-producing strain of Haemophilus influenzae. The evaluation covered the 12 h period after antibiotic administration. Serum specimens from the 12 healthy volunteers included in the pharmacokinetic study were pooled by time point and in equal volumes. Eight of 12 pharmacokinetic sampling time points were included in the study. At time points 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2.5, 5, 8 and 12 h post-dosing, the kinetics of bactericidal activity were determined for each of the serial dilutions. Each specimen was serially diluted from 1:2 to 1:256. The index of surviving bacteria (ISB) was subsequently determined for each pharmacokinetic time point. For all the serum samples, bactericidal activity was fast (3-6 h), marked (3-6 log(10) reduction in the initial inoculum) and sustained over the 12 h between-dosing interval. The results obtained also confirmed that the potency of the amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid combination was time dependent against the species under study and that the time interval over which the concentrations were greater than the MIC (t > MIC) was 100% for the strain under study. The data thus generated constitute an interesting prerequisite with a view to using co-amoxiclav 1.125 g in a bd oral regimen.
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The role of routine antimicrobial treatment of acute middle-ear infections is under debate, because the efficacy of antimicrobials in the resolution of middle-ear fluid has not been unambiguously proven. Acute tube otorrhea is regarded as evidence of acute otitis media, and for methodologic reasons it was chosen to provide objectivity for diagnostics and outcome assessment. The objective of this study was to assess whether amoxicillin-clavulanate accelerates the resolution of acute tube otorrhea.
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Clinical failure without antibiotics was 19.9% compared with 9.5% with amoxicillin/clavulanate (P = .022). The only factors significantly associated with an increased risk of failure without antibiotics were the increase in sputum purulence (OR, 6.1; 95% CI, 1.5-25.0; P = .005) and a CRP concentration ≥ 40 mg/L (OR, 13.4; 95% CI, 4.6-38.8; P < .001). When both factors were present, the probability of failure without antibiotics was 63.7%. The Anthonisen criteria showed an area under the curve of 0.708 (95% CI, 0.616-0.801) for predicting clinical outcome. With the addition of CRP level, the area under the curve rose significantly to 0.842 (95% CI, 0.76-0.924; P < .001).
Median MICs of ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone were stable at 0.5 mg/L and 0.125 mg/L, respectively. Chloramphenicol, azithromycin, co-trimoxazole and augmentin median MICs were 4 mg/L, 8 mg/L, 0.064 mg/L and 0.5 mg/L, respectively. MIC90 values were lower than the resistant breakpoint for ceftriaxone, azithromycin and augmentin, but were >256 mg/L for chloramphenicol, 32 mg/L for co-trimoxazole and 1 mg/L for ciprofloxacin.
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Acute sinusitis is defined pathologically, by transient inflammation of the mucosal lining of the paranasal sinuses lasting less than 4 weeks. Clinically, it is characterised by nasal congestion, rhinorrhoea, facial pain, hyposmia, sneezing, and, if more severe, additional malaise and fever. It affects 1% to 5% of the adult population each year in Europe.
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Febrile urinary tract infections are common in children and associated with the risk for renal scarring and long-term complications. Antimicrobial prophylaxis has been used to reduce the risk for recurrence. We performed a study to determine whether no prophylaxis is similar to antimicrobial prophylaxis for 12 months in reducing the recurrence of febrile urinary tract infections in children after a first febrile urinary tract infection.