Recommendations vary regarding immediate antimicrobial treatment versus watchful waiting for children younger than 2 years of age with acute otitis media.
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While modern cephalosporins developed for broad spectrum antibacterial activities have never been pursued for tuberculosis (TB) therapy, we identified first generation cephalosporins having clinically relevant inhibitory concentrations, both alone and in synergistic drug combinations. Common chemical patterns required for activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis were identified using structure-activity relationships (SAR) studies. Numerous cephalosporins were synergistic with rifampicin, the cornerstone drug for TB therapy, and ethambutol, a first-line anti-TB drug. Synergy was observed even under intracellular growth conditions where beta-lactams typically have limited activities. Cephalosporins and rifampicin were 4- to 64-fold more active in combination than either drug alone; however, limited synergy was observed with rifapentine or rifabutin. Clavulanate was a key synergistic partner in triple combinations. Cephalosporins (and other beta-lactams) together with clavulanate rescued the activity of rifampicin against a rifampicin resistant strain. Synergy was not due exclusively to increased rifampicin accumulation within the mycobacterial cells. Cephalosporins were also synergistic with new anti-TB drugs such as bedaquiline and delamanid. Studies will be needed to validate their in vivo activities. However, the fact that cephalosporins are orally bioavailable with good safety profiles, together with their anti-mycobacterial activities reported here, suggest that they could be repurposed within new combinatorial TB therapies.
Clinical and bacteriological efficacy and tolerability of azithromycin (500 mg once daily for 3 days) and those of a 10-day regimen of co-amoxiclav (37 mg three times daily) were evaluated in a large-scale, double-blind comparative study of 369 patients (> or = 18 years old) with acute lower respiratory tract infections. After treatment, 165/173 (95%) azithromycin- and 166/173 (96%) co-amoxiclav-treated patients had responded satisfactorily (cure or improvement). Baseline pathogens (mainly Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae) were eradicated in 82/82 (100%) azithromycin- and 73/74 (99%) co-amoxiclav-treated patients who were bacteriologically assessable. Adverse events, which were predominantly of mild to moderate severity and mostly affected the gastrointestinal system, were recorded in 13/186 (7%) azithromycin- and 19/183 (10%) co-amoxiclav-treated patients. Only two (1%) azithromycin-treated patients discontinued treatment due to adverse events compared with eight (4%) who received co-amoxiclav. The results show that azithromycin at a dose of 500 mg once daily for 3 days is an effective and safe alternative to a 10-day, three-times-daily course of co-amoxiclav in the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections in adults.
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Infliximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody, belonging to the class of anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) agents, approved for the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Drugs of this class are known to be associated with an infective risk, probably because they interfere with inflammatory and immune response at different levels. Although cutaneous Staphylococcus aureus infections seem to be more frequent than any other infection in the course of anti-TNF-α treatment, only a few case reports in the literature deal with this side effect, and, in particular, with its management.
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There are various forms of medical treatment for otitis media with effusion (OME) in children. One of these is a four week course of an antibiotic. A trial was carried out comparing cotrimoxazole with amoxicillin-potassium clavulanate in 102 cases with 181 affected ears. In addition this trial used various procedures to increase and monitor compliance, and the results showed that the compliant cases did much better than the noncompliant cases and cotrimoxazole was more effective than amoxicillin-potassium clavulanate. When the ethnic groupings were analysed the compliance was lower for the Maori (24%) and Pacific Islander (29%) than the European (49%). The success rate for the compliant cases whose middle ear effusion resolved in one or both ears had a similar result with Maori (40%), Pacific Islander (60%) and European (71%) probably indicating an increased nonmeasured compliance in the latter.
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Two hundred and fifty patients were admitted to a prospective randomized trial to compare the efficacy of Augmentin with metronidazole in the prevention of sepsis after appendicectomy. Pre-operatively they received either 500 mg metronidazole or 1.2g Augmentin intravenously. Those patients with gangrenous or perforated appendices received eight additional doses of the trial drug at 8 hourly intervals. Overall there were 13 wound infections in the Augmentin group (11 per cent) and 21 in the metronidazole group (18 per cent). The 90 per cent confidence limits for the overall 7 per cent difference in infection rates were +/- 8.5 per cent. There were high rates of wound infection in the gangrenous group (Augmentin 8 per cent versus metronidazole 19 per cent) and especially in the perforated group (Augmentin 33 per cent versus metronidazole 63 per cent). There was no statistically significant difference between the infection rates with the two antibiotics but our study suggests that Augmentin, which is active against both aerobes and anaerobes, may be more effective than metronidazole in reducing wound sepsis after appendicectomy.
Childhood granulomatous periorificial dermatitis (CGPD) is a self-limiting and well-recognized entity. A six-year-old male child, a known case of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) presented with multiple red raised and yellowish lesions over the face, neck, trunk and upper extremities since one month with occasional itching. Cutaneous examination revealed multiple erythematous scaly papules of size up to 5 mm around the mouth, nose and periorbital areas, neck, trunk and upper extremities with few excoriations. Lesional skin biopsy was pathognomic of CGPD. We report a six-year-old Indian male child with extra-facial involvement and healing with small atrophic pigmented scars in a known case of JRA.