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In March 2013 we searched the following databases: The Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register; The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) (The Cochrane Library); NHS Economic Evaluation Database (The Cochrane Library); Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database (The Cochrane Library); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid EMBASE; and EBSCO CINAHL.
The range and resistance patterns of organisms causing urinary tract infections (UTI) vary with time and place. A prospective study of midstream urine (MSU) specimens, received over a 3 month period, was therefore undertaken. The antibiotic sensitivities of 528 isolates from 196 domiciliary and 332 hospitalised patients with significant bacteriuria (> 10(5) organisms/ml) were determined using the modified Stokes method. Escherichia coli accounted for 79% of domiciliary isolates and 57% in hospitalised patients. Gram positive organisms causing UTI have become increasingly common and were isolated from 8% and 15% of domiciliary and hospitalised patients respectively. Resistance levels for co-amoxiclav (Augmentin) were low (7% domiciliary, 14% hospitalised). However 46 Gram negative isolates (10%) had intermediate sensitivities to co-amoxiclav on disc testing. Breakpoint testing showed 89% of these to be sensitive at the urinary breakpoint but only 52% were sensitive at the systemic breakpoint. Forty nine percent of E. coli from hospital specimens were resistant to pipercillin, due to TEM-1 beta lactamase production. A 6% resistance level to ciprofloxacin in domiciliary E. coli is considerably higher than previous reports and gives cause for concern. Gentamicin resistance was found in 4% of Gram negative hospital isolates, a finding of some significance in the empiric treatment of septicaemia of urinary tract origin.
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There was very little good quality evidence. Four studies were included, all of them investigating different interventions and therefore a meta-analysis was not possible.Only one study demonstrated a significant difference. Oral amoxicillin clavulanate was compared to placebo in 79 patients. The odds of having a discharge persisting eight days after starting treatment was 0.19 (95% CI 0.07 to 0.49) . The number needed to treat to achieve that benefit is 2.5. Participants in both arms of this study also received daily aural toilet. The results will therefore not be applicable to most settings including primary care. No significant benefit was shown in the two studies investigating steroids (oral prednisolone with oral amoxicillin clavulanate and topical dexamethasone with topical ciprofloxacin ear drops), or the one study comparing an antibiotic-steroid combination (Otosporin®) drops versus spray (Otomize®) (although more patients preferred the spray form).
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The number of responders and nonresponders was similar in the antimicrobial- and nonantimicrobial-treated groups (p = NS), and no single antimicrobial medication demonstrated greater treatment effectiveness.
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To determine whether postoperative urinary infections were related to shaving before undergoing endoscopic urological surgery, 90 patients were randomly assigned to shaving or not shaving. Urinary cultures revealed infection in 10 patients. Half of them had been shaved, suggesting that this practice does not affect the incidence of urinary infections.
Our results show the relevance of notification of side effects by physicians to pharmacovigilance centres, leading to the identification of a signal and public health dissemination of warnings.
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We have observed that 6% (7 out of 118 strains) of Salmonella enterica and 42% (5 out of 11 strains) of Shigella flexneri isolates exhibited an intermediate susceptibility or were resistant to amoxicilline/clavulanate with MICs values ranging between 16 mg/l and 32 mg/l.
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The aim of this study was to examine the additive value of AMX determinants in STs of patients with immediate hypersensitivity reactions to AMX or AMX-clavulanate (AMX-C).
Of the 190 clinical isolates S. epidermidis was the most common species found 144(75.8%).The overall drug resistance among the species ranged from 1.6% to 99.5% to all the drugs tested, except to vancomycin and linezolid which were 100% sensitive.The highest drug resistance was exhibited by penicillin 189 (99.5%), ampicillin 188 (99%), oxacillin 178 (93.6%) and augmentin 177 (93%). The minimum drug resistance was shown by synercid 4 (2.2%) and daptomycin 3 (1.6%). All species were 100% resistant to penicillin and ampicillin, except S. hyicus and one isolate of S. hominis-homin which was sensitive to ampicillin.
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Abilities of amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefpodoxime, cefprozil, azithromycin, and clarithromycin to select resistant mutants of Haemophilus influenzae were tested by multistep and single-step methodologies. For multistep studies, 10 random strains were tested: 5 of these were beta-lactamase positive. After 50 daily subcultures in amoxicillin-clavulanate, MICs did not increase more than fourfold. However, cefprozil MICs increased eightfold for one strain. Clarithromycin and azithromycin gave a >4-fold increase in 8 and 10 strains after 14 to 46 and 20 to 50 days, respectively. Mutants selected by clarithromycin and azithromycin were associated with mutations in 23S rRNA and ribosomal proteins L4 and L22. Three mutants selected by clarithromycin or azithromycin had alterations in ribosomal protein L4, while five had alterations in ribosomal protein L22. Two mutants selected by azithromycin had mutations in the gene encoding 23S rRNA: one at position 2058 and the other at position 2059 (Escherichia coli numbering), with replacement of A by G. One clone selected by clarithromycin became hypersusceptible to macrolides. In single-step studies azithromycin and clarithromycin had the highest mutation rates, while amoxicillin-clavulanate had the lowest. All resistant clones were identical to parents as observed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The MICs of azithromycin for azithromycin-resistant clones were 16 to >128 micro g/ml, and those of clarithromycin for clarithromycin-resistant clones were 32 to >128 micro g/ml in multistep studies. For strains selected by azithromycin, the MICs of clarithromycin were high and vice versa. After 50 daily subcultures in the presence of drugs, MICs of amoxicillin-clavulanate and cefpodoxime against H. influenzae did not rise more than fourfold, in contrast to cefprozil, azithromycin, and clarithromycin, whose MICs rose to variable degrees.