The addition of flunisolide topical nasal spray as an adjunct to antibiotic therapy was most effective in global evaluations, tended to improve symptoms, to decrease inflammatory cells in nasal cytograms, to normalize ultrasound scans, and to aid regression of radiographic abnormalities compared with placebo spray.
Progressive delay in antibiotic treatment of acute pyelonephritis from <1 to >/=5 days after the onset of fever was not associated with any significant increase in the risk of scarring on technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid scans obtained 1 year later. The risk of scarring remained relatively constant at 30.7 +/- 7%. Clinical and laboratory indices of inflammation were comparable in all groups, as was the incidence of vesicoureteric reflux.
The study showed Streptococcus pneumoniae to be the most common etiological agent for CAP, in our hospital setting. The other organisms isolated in order of frequency were Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Alpha hemolytic streptococci, Escherichia coli, Beta hemolytic streptococci and atypical coli. S. pneumoniae was most sensitive to linezolid, followed by amoxicillin-clavulanate (augmentin), cloxacillin and ceftriaxone. Overall, the common pathogens causing CAP showed highest sensitivity to amikacin, followed by ofloxacin, gentamycin, amoxicillin-clavulanate (augmentin), ceftriaxone and linezolid. The least sensitivity rates were shown to amoxicillin and cefoperazone.
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Plesiomonas shigelloides are ubiquitous Gram-negative bacteria that are found in fresh or marine water, particularly in tropical or warm climates; they were recently implicated in diarrhoeal disease. Patients usually present with a history of recent travel to tropical regions or consumption of uncooked seafood. Extraintestinal disease has rarely been reported, occurring generally in neonates or immunocompromised patients, and is often fatal. We report a case of right pyosalpinx due to P. shigelloides acquired by swimming in contaminated water. Laparoscopic salpingectomy led to a good outcome.
The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of moxifloxacin versus amoxicillin-clavulanate plus roxithromycin (comparator) in adult community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients with risk factors. In this comparative, randomized, multicenter, open-label study, patients hospitalized for CAP received a 10-day oral treatment with either moxifloxacin (400 mg o.d.) or amoxicillin-clavulanate (1,000/125 mg t.i.d.) plus roxithromycin (150 mg b.i.d.). Clinical and bacteriological outcomes were assessed during test of cure and follow-up visits (5-7 days and 21-28 days after the end of treatment, respectively). Of 349 randomized patients, 346 were included in the intent-to-treat analysis and 289 in the per-protocol analysis. Their baseline characteristics were comparable. The most frequent risk factors for mortality were age >65 years (50.0%), alcoholism (23.1%), and comorbidities (50.6%); chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (25.4%) and diabetes mellitus (13.6%) were the most common associated comorbidities. A causative pathogen was documented in 66 of 346 (19.1%) of the patients (including 21 with positive blood cultures). Respective per-protocol clinical success rates at test-of-cure (primary efficacy endpoint) for moxifloxacin and comparator were 131 of 151 (86.8%) and 120 of 138 (87.0%), with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of -8.0-7.6 for the difference. Bacteriological success rates (eradication) were 23 of 30 (76.7%) and 23 of 31 (74.2%); rates for patients with positive blood cultures were 10 of 14 and 4 of 6. Persistent clinical success rates at follow-up were 118 of 120 (98.3%) and 102 of 106 (96.2%), with a 95%CI of -2.2-6.4 for the difference. The intent-to-treat analysis confirmed these results. Adverse events associated with moxifloxacin and the comparator drug were reported for 42 of 171 (24.6%) and 50 of 175 (28.6%) of the patients, respectively, and comprised predominantly digestive disorders, which occurred in 9.4% and 21.1%. On the basis of these results, once-daily oral moxifloxacin alone is as effective as amoxicillin-clavulanate plus roxithromycin for the treatment of CAP in patients with risk factors.
Lemierre's syndrome is a classical presentation of human necrobacillosis. It is characterized by a primary infection in the face including a septic thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein and disseminated metastatic abcesses. Fusobacterium necrophorum is the main pathogen found in that syndrome. The diagnosis is based on clinical features, then on the microbiology with positive anaerobic blood cultures as key role and finally on the computed tomography. Most of the time a well-chosen antibiotic treatment against anaerobic pathogens and Gram negative bacilli is efficient but surgery can be useful. We report a case of a 73 years old man, which seems to be unique because it is the first case reported of a Lemierre's syndrome characterized by a parotitis infected by F. necrophorum.
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The efficacy and safety of amoxycillin/clavulanic acid (AMX/CA) (875/125 mg b.i.d. for 14 days) were compared with that of cefuroxime axetil (500 mg b.i.d. for 14 days) in a multicenter, open, parallel-group, randomized clinical trial in 206 adults with chronic or acute exacerbation of chronic sinusitis. Clinical response was similar, with 95% of AMX/CA-, and 88% of cefuroxime-treated, clinically evaluable patients cured (95% confidence interval; -0.6% to +15%). In bacteriologically evaluable patients, cure rates, defined as eradication of the original pathogen with or without re-colonization with non-pathogenic flora, were also similar, with 65% of AMX/CA- and 68% of cefuroxime-treated patients cured (95% confidence interval; -18% to +15%). However, clinical relapse was significantly higher in the cefuroxime group: 7% (7/89) of clinically evaluable patients, compared with 0% (0/98) in the AMX/CA (p=0.0049) group. A similar incidence of possible or definite adverse events related to the study drug was reported for both treatments (AMX/CA 4.4%, cefuroxime 4.3%), the most frequent being diarrhea. Four adverse events were recorded as serious or life-threatening with only one considered related to the study drug (urticaria, cefuroxime). AMX/CA 875/125 mg b.i.d. for 14 days is as effective and well tolerated as cefuroxime axetil 500 mg b.i.d. for 14 days in the treatment of chronic, or acute exacerbation of chronic sinusitis, but is associated with a significantly lower clinical relapse rate.
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A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted to evaluate one month of amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium treatment of children with secretory otitis media. In total, 264 children, aged 1 to 10 years, were randomly assigned to either antibiotic or placebo treatment; 43 patients were excluded during treatment, equally distributed in both groups, leaving 221 patients completing the trial. The inclusion criterion was a type C2 and type B tympanometry result of at least three months' duration. Tympanometry was performed every month for 12 additional months. At the end of the treatment period, the disease was reversed in 61% in the antibiotic-treated group compared with 30% in the placebo-treated group (P less than .0001), and the improvement was persistently significant in favor of antibiotic for eight months. The effect was present in all age groups and independent of laterality of disease. The middle-ear status at the end of treatment was the determining factor for the outcome of tympanometry the year following treatment. From the end of treatment, there was no difference between tympanometry in a patient having been treated with the antibiotic and a patient having been treated with placebo. Antibiotic treatment shifts the individual patient from poor to better tympanometric conditions, so antibiotics can be recommended in the treatment of secretory otitis media before inserting ventilating tubes.
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Sinusitis is a common medical problem that can occasionally manifest as dental pain. If the patient is experiencing dental pain in the maxillary posterior teeth, then it is appropriate for the dentist to rule out sinusitis as a source of the problem before proceeding with definitive dental treatment. Often there is an obvious odontogenic source of the pain, and this should be resolved first, but in other situations it is difficult to determine the cause of the symptoms. In some patients, the source of the pain is so equivocal that it may be necessary to treat the patient for sinusitis to eliminate this as the source of the dental pain (Table 7). In this process, the dentist has one of 2 options: either refer the patient to a physician or treat the sinusitis. The option chosen regarding patient management is made by the dentist and depends on the particular clinical situation and the dentist's training and experience.
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A total of 550 HIV-infected patients with CD4-cell counts of less than 350 cells/mm(3) who were eligible for TMP-SMX prophylaxis and attending Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria, were recruited for this study. Stool/rectal swab samples were aseptically collected from the patients and processed using standard methods for culture and sensitivity.