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We randomly assigned 291 children 6 to 23 months of age, with acute otitis media diagnosed with the use of stringent criteria, to receive amoxicillin-clavulanate or placebo for 10 days. We measured symptomatic response and rates of clinical failure.
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The experiment was carried out on 24 SPF BALB/c female mice and lasted for 15 days with a 5-day antibiotic (ATB) treatment and then 10 days without ATB treatment. The aim of our study was to acquire an animal model with reduced and controlled microflora and, at the same time, to ensure that the good health of these animals is maintained. Per oral administration of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in Amoksiklav (Sandoz, Slovenia) at a dose of 387.11 mg/kg body weight (0.2 ml of dilution per mouse) and subcutaneous administration of ciprofloxacin in Ciloxan (Alcon, Spain) at a dose of 18.87 mg/kg body weight (0.1 ml of dilution per mouse) were performed every 12 h during first 5 days of experiment. Five-day treatment with ATB led to a reduced survivability of microorganisms in faeces (28.33 ± 0.43 % on day 2) and caecum content (28.10 ± 1.56 %), where no cultivable microorganisms in faeces were present. Ten-day convalescence of decontaminated animals under gnotobiotic conditions prevented recovery of species diversity in mice gut microflora. This was reduced to two detectable cultivable species, namely Escherichia coli (GenBank KX086704) and Enterococcus sp. (GenBank KX086705) which were capable to restore its metabolic (CRL 2012) and morphological potential (Baratta et al. Histochem Cell Biol 131:713-726, 2009) within physiological range. Animals obtained under this procedure can be used in further studies. As a result, we created a mouse gnoto model with reduced and controlled microflora without alteration of the overall health status of the respective animals.
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The primary outcome measure was incidence of gastric cancer during follow-up, compared between H pylori eradication and placebo groups. The secondary outcome measure was incidence of gastric cancer in patients with or without precancerous lesions, compared between the 2 groups.
From March 1992 to June 1997, 91 women underwent rollerball endometrial ablation for uncontrolled menorrhagia unresponsive to medical treatment. Each was sent a detailed questionnaire after at least 18 months (range 18-55). There was an overall response rate of 88% (80/91). Case notes were reviewed to collect additional data related to pre-operative management and actual operative procedure. The main outcome measures included treatment satisfaction, relief of symptoms, improvement in health related quality of life, at least 18 months after surgery.
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The sensitivities to penicillins and to a penicillin and beta-lactamase inhibitor combination agent were determined for Helicobacter pylori strains that were sensitive, moderately resistant, or highly resistant to amoxicillin. All strains were resistant to nafcillin and oxacillin. Moderately resistant strains showed an intermediate zone of inhibition to ticarcillin, mezlocillin, piperacillin, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. High-level resistance was associated with the smallest zone size for all penicillins tested.
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The aim of the study was to determine the microbiological profile of acute appendicitis in children.
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Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) and Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) are the leading bacterial cause of acute otitis media (AOM), having the nasopharynx (NP) as their reservoir. In October 2001 we began a prospective, multicenter, randomized, evaluator blind study, comparing the efficacy of amoxicillin-sulbactam (Ax/S) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (Ax/C) for the treatment of non-recurrent AOM (nr-AOM). Both antimicrobial susceptibility (AS) to Ax/S and Ax/C from Sp and Hi carried by study children (aged 6-48 months with nr-AOM) and, clinical outcome after treatment with high dose of either Ax/C (7:1) or Ax/S (4:1) (amoxicillin dose: 80 mg/(kg day), b.i.d. for 10 days) were assessed. Nasal cultures (NCs) were taken at Day 0. Follow-up NCs, were done only for Sp carriers. On final analysis 247/289 pts (85.5%) were fully evaluable (120 Ax/S and 127 Ax/C). NP carriage rate of Hi and Sp at Day 0 was 32.2% (93/289 pts) and 28.7% (83/289 pts), respectively. Persistent Sp carriage was detected only in 2 pts. Hi betalactamase positive rate was 13% (12/93). MICs for Ax/S and Ax/C were identical when tested against Sp and Hi isolates (range < or = 0.016-1.0 and < or = 0.016-0.25 mg/L, respectively). Clinical efficacy at Days 12-14 and 28-42 were 98.3% (115/117) and 94.2% (97/103) for Ax/S; and 98.3% (115/117) and 95.1% (98/103) for Ax/C, respectively (pNS). We conclude, that Sp and Hi isolated from NCs of nr-AOM pts were highly sensitive to both drugs and correlated with high clinical efficacy rate.