Patients with symptoms suggestive of non-dysenteric intestinal amoebiasis were recruited from a survey to assess the prevalence of abdominal symptoms in the general population (group A; n = 78) and from medical outpatient clinics (group B; n = 66). Participants who had symptoms as well as symptom-free controls (group C; n = 100) were clinically examined and underwent stool examination, amoebic serology, colonoscopic examination, histopathological examination of colonoscopic biopsy samples, and a trial of antiamoebic therapy (only for participants with symptoms) with metronidazole and mebendazole.
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Clinical features of 43 cases of invasive Eikenella corrodens infections diagnosed at National Taiwan University Hospital during a 6-year period (1993-1998) were analyzed. The clinical syndromes included head and neck infection (56%), pulmonary infection (23%), intra-abdominal infection (14%), cutaneous infection (5%), skeletal infection (2%), endocarditis (2%), and pelvic abscess (2%). Nearly two-thirds of the patients (63%) had pre-existing diseases. Malignancy (35%), especially of the head and neck, was the most common underlying illness. More than half of the patients (56%) had associated factors predisposing to invasive Eikenella corrodens infection. Polymicrobial infections occurred in 28 (65%) patients, with two-thirds of the concurrent isolates being streptococci (66%). Five cases were fatal, with four deaths directly attributable to invasive Eikenella corrodens infection. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and molecular typing were performed on 23 preserved Eikenella corrodens isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that Eikenella corrodens isolates were susceptible to penicillin, amoxicillin, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, cefepime, ciprofloxacin, and imipenem. The isolates were resistant to clindamycin, metronidazole, cephalothin, and cefuroxime. None of the 23 isolates produced beta-lactamase. Random amplified polymorphic DNA patterns of the 23 isolates were different, suggesting that different clones of Eikenella corrodens caused these infections.
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This study aimed to investigate the molecular characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium difficile clinical isolates in Guangzhou, China. One hundred twenty isolates were collected from Guangzhou General Hospital at the Guangzhou Military Command in China from March 2014 to April 2015, and 9 isolates were identified as tcdA-negative/tcdB-positive (A(-)B(+)) strains. Results showed that all of the strains were confirmed to be ST37 and 0 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) were found in the PaLoc region, and >60 SNVs were identified throughout the whole genome sequence. The results show the diversity of the antibiotic and gene mutations present in these strains. All of the A(-)B(+) isolates were highly resistant to clindamycin and erythromycin; showed an average sensitivity to fluoroquinolones; and maintained a high susceptibility to metronidazole, vancomycin, and tigecycline.
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Diffuser-tipped optical fiber appears to significantly increase the diameter of ILH-induced tumor necrosis compared to the bare fiber. In contrast to the bare fiber, it enables the application of laser energy using higher power settings without compromising the diameter of tumor necrosis achieved. In animals treated with metronidazole, a trend towards increased tumor destruction at the tumor-host interface was seen on histolopathology. In addition, a trend towards increased diameter of tumor necrosis was also seen; however, statistical significance was not achieved.
Twenty-two patients with untreated chronic periodontitis were randomly assigned to a group that received M+A for 7 days, or to a group receiving scaling and root planing (SRP) and two placebos. Clinical measurements including sites with plaque, bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD) and attachment level (AL) were made at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Subgingival plaque samples were taken from all teeth at baseline 3, 6, 9 and 12 months for the counts of 40 subgingival species using checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization.
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The treatment of choice for odontogenic cysts is surgery, and when the cysts are infected, preoperative antibiotic coverage is needed. However, the diffusion of antibiotics is a matter of controversy because of the low vascularization of the cystic epithelium. The aim of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial action of amoxicillin and metronidazole on infected odontogenic cysts.
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Eugenia uniflora, used ethnomedically in some tropical countries as an anti-infective, has shown anti-malarial and anti-trypanocidal activities. Therefore using bioactivity guided fractionation, anti-trichomonal activity of E. uniflora leaf was investigated. Anti-trichomonal activities of leaf methanol extract and its fractions against Trichomonas gallinae as well as their cytotoxicities using an in vitro haemaglutination assay were determined. Anti-trichomonacidal activities of the extract improved on purification up to a stage. Subfractions E(2-5) had LC(50) and LC(90) values of 4.77 - 5.28, 18.49 - 25.00 and 4.53 - 5.18, 18.32 - 19.07 µg/ml at 24 and 48 hrs, respectively that were better than those of metronidazole. Further purification of E(2-5) led to loss of activity suggesting that the active components were probably working synergistically and additively. Demonstration of low haemaglutination titre values of 0.00 - 5.33 by methanolic extract and its partition fractions suggested their low toxicity profile. The established safety of the leaf indicated that its anti-trichomonal activity was not due to non-specific cytotoxicity, hence could be used in ethnomedicine as an anti-trichomonal agent.
All 27 EU member states and another seven countries participate in the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC) project. ESAC carried out three hospital point-prevalence surveys on antimicrobial use. Point-prevalence surveys linked antimicrobial use to indication and also assessed dosing using a standardized methodology for data collection and online data submission with feedback capability using a dedicated web-based tool. The objectives of the ESAC hospital point-prevalence surveys were to first determine the feasibility of a pan-European survey and identify targets for quality improvement. Hospitals were voluntarily selected by the lead national or hospital representatives for each country. The WHO Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification of drugs was used for classification of antimicrobials. The three surveys were carried out during a maximum of 2 weeks in the second quarter of 2006, 2008 and 2009. Each department had to be surveyed in 1 day. All systemic antibacterials (J01), rifampicin (J04AB), oral vancomycin (A07AA) and oral/rectal metronidazole (P01AB) were the antimicrobials surveyed, including the prescribed regimen. The number of participating hospitals increased from 20 to 172 from 2006 to 2009. The patient demographics and indications for treatment were similar throughout the three point-prevalence surveys. 'Reason in notes' and 'surgical prophylaxis >24 hours' were also similar. Guideline compliance (51%) was only introduced in the 2009 point-prevalence survey, replacing 'sample for culture and sensitivity' (<50% in 2006 and 2008) since samples were either not taken or no information was available for the majority (>50%) of patients. The use of combination therapy, although exhibiting a wide range within each category, was related to hospital type, with teaching and tertiary hospitals having a significantly higher use of combination therapy (teaching : non-teaching hospitals [p < 0.0001]; and primary : tertiary hospitals [p < 0.0001]). Point-prevalence surveys are useful when time and resources do not allow for continuous surveillance. Repeated point-prevalence surveys within the same institution(s) can be used to monitor trends and effectiveness of antimicrobial-stewardship initiatives. Targets should be set as quality indicators for the individual hospital(s) and effectiveness of any intervention monitored through repeated point-prevalence surveys. Spin-off initiatives, such as the Antibiotic Resistance and Prescribing in European Children, and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control point-prevalence survey on healthcare-associated infections and antimicrobial use, will utilize adapted versions of WebPPS, the point-prevalence survey software developed by ESAC. WebPPS will also be made available for non-commercial use to third parties. Interest has been shown from three continents outside Europe, namely North America, Australia and Africa.
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A large, 450-bed institution for adults with mental retardation located in southern Taiwan.